Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a kidney disorder passed down through families. In this disease, many cysts form in the kidneys, causing them to become enlarged.
Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD
People with PKD have many clusters of cysts in the kidneys. What exactly triggers the cysts to form is unknown.
PKD is associated with the following conditions:
As many as half of people with PKD have cysts in the liver.
Symptoms of PKD may include any of the following:
An examination may show:
Tests that may be done include:
People with a personal or family history of PKD who have headaches should be tested to determine if cerebral aneurysms are the cause.
PKD and cysts on the liver or other organs may be found using the following tests:
If several members of your family have PKD, genetic tests can be done to determine whether you carry the PKD gene.
The goal of treatment is to control symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include:
Any urinary tract infection should be treated quickly with antibiotics.
Cysts that are painful, infected, bleeding, or causing a blockage may need to be drained. There are usually too many cysts to make it practical to remove each cyst.
More information and support for people with polycystic kidney disease and their families can be found at a kidney disease support group.
Treatment may relieve symptoms for many years.
People with PKD who don't have other diseases may be good candidates for a kidney transplant.
Health problems that may result from PKD include:
Contact your health care provider if:
Currently, no treatment can prevent the cysts from forming or enlarging.
Arnaout MA. Cystic kidney diseases. In: Goldman L, Cooney KA, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 27th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2024:chap 112.
Torres VE, Harris PC. Cystic diseases of the kidney. In: Yu ASL, Chertow GM, Luyckx VA, Marsden PA, Skorecki K, Taal MW, eds. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 45.
Reviewed By: Walead Latif, MD, Nephrologist and Clinical Associate Professor, Rutgers Medical School, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.