Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver and poor liver function. It is the last stage of chronic liver disease.
Liver cirrhosis; Chronic liver disease; End-stage liver disease; Liver failure - cirrhosis; Ascites - cirrhosis
Cirrhosis is most often the end result of chronic liver damage caused by long-term (chronic) liver disease. Common causes of chronic liver disease in the United States are:
Less common causes of cirrhosis include:
There may be no symptoms, or symptoms may come on slowly, depending on how well the liver is working. Often, it is discovered by chance when an abdominal ultrasound exam is done or blood is drawn for another reason.
Early symptoms include:
- Fatigue and loss of energy
- Poor appetite and weight loss
- Nausea or belly pain
- Small, red spider-like blood vessels on the skin
As liver function worsens, symptoms may include:
- Fluid buildup in the legs (edema) and in the abdomen (ascites)
- Yellow color in the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes (jaundice)
- Redness on the palms of the hands
- In men, impotence, shrinking of the testicles, and breast swelling
- Easy bruising and abnormal bleeding, most often from swollen veins in the digestive tract
- Confusion or problems thinking
- Pale or clay-colored stools
- Bleeding from upper or lower gastrointestinal tract
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider will do a physical exam to look for:
- An enlarged liver or spleen
- Excess breast tissue (in men)
- Swollen abdomen, as a result of too much fluid
- Reddened palms
- Red spider-like blood vessels on the skin
- Small testicles (in men)
- Widened veins in the abdomen wall
- Yellow eyes or skin (jaundice)
You may have the following tests to determine the cause of your cirrhosis:
- Hepatitis virus testing
- Antibody testing for autoimmune hepatitis
- Serum iron saturation and ferritin levels
- Serum ceruloplasmin level
- Genetic testing for liver disorders
You may have the following tests to measure liver function:
Other tests to check for liver damage include:
You might need a liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.
Some things you can do to help take care of your liver disease are:
- Drink no alcohol.
- Eat a healthy diet that is low in salt, fat, and simple carbohydrates.
- Get vaccinated for diseases such as influenza, COVID-19, hepatitis A and B, and pneumococcal disease.
- Talk to your provider about all medicines you take, including herbs and supplements and over-the-counter medicines.
- Control your underlying metabolic problems, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol.
MEDICINES FROM YOUR PROVIDER
- Water pills (diuretics) to get rid of fluid build-up
- Vitamin K or blood products to prevent excess bleeding
- Medicines for mental confusion
- Antibiotics for infections
When cirrhosis progresses to end-stage liver disease, a liver transplant may be needed.
You can often ease the stress of illness by joining a liver disease support group whose members share common experiences and problems.
Cirrhosis is caused by scarring of the liver. In most cases, the liver cannot heal or return to normal function once the damage is severe. Cirrhosis can lead to serious complications.
Complications may include:
- Bleeding disorders
- Buildup of fluid in the abdomen (ascites) and infection of the fluid (spontaneous bacterial peritonitis)
- Enlarged veins in the esophagus, stomach, or intestines that bleed easily (varices)
- Increased pressure in the blood vessels of the liver (portal hypertension)
- Kidney failure (hepatorenal syndrome)
- Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma)
- Mental confusion, change in the level of consciousness, or coma (hepatic encephalopathy)
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Contact your provider if you develop symptoms of cirrhosis.
Get emergency medical help right away if you have:
- Abdominal or chest pain
- Abdominal swelling or ascites that is new or suddenly becomes worse
- A fever (temperature greater than 101°F or 38.3°C)
- Confusion or a change in alertness, or it gets worse
- Rectal bleeding, vomiting blood, or blood in the urine
- Shortness of breath
- Vomiting more than once a day
- Yellowing skin or eyes (jaundice) that is new or gets worse quickly
DO NOT drink alcohol. Talk to your provider if you are worried about your drinking. Take steps to prevent getting hepatitis B or C or passing it to other people.
Garcia-Tsao G. Cirrhosis and its sequelae. In: Goldman L, Cooney KA, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 27th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2024:chap 139.
Kamath PS, Shah VH. Overview of cirrhosis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 74.
Michael M. Phillips, MD, Emeritus Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Internal review and update on 02/10/2024 by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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