General anesthesia is treatment with certain medicines that puts you into a deep sleep so you do not feel pain during surgery. After you receive these medicines, you will not be aware of what is happening around you.
Surgery - general anesthesia
Most times, a doctor called an anesthesiologist will give you the anesthesia. Sometimes, a certified and registered nurse anesthetist will take care of you.
The medicine is given into your vein. You may be asked to breathe in (inhale) a special gas through a mask. Once you are asleep, the doctor may insert a tube into your windpipe (trachea) to help you breathe and protect your lungs.
You will be watched very closely while you are asleep. Your blood pressure, pulse, and breathing will be monitored. The health care provider taking care of you can change how deeply asleep you are during the surgery.
You will not move, feel any pain, or have any memory of the procedure because of this medicine.
General anesthesia is a safe way to stay asleep and pain-free during procedures that would:
You may also be able to have conscious sedation for your procedure. Sometimes, though, it is not enough to make you comfortable. Children may need general anesthesia for a medical or dental procedure to manage any pain or anxiety they may feel.
General anesthesia is usually safe for healthy people. You may have a higher risk of problems with general anesthesia if you:
Ask your doctor about these complications:
Tell your provider:
During the days before the surgery:
On the day of your surgery:
You will wake up tired and groggy in the recovery or operating room. You may also feel sick to your stomach, and have a dry mouth, sore throat, or feel cold or restless until the effect of the anesthesia wears off. Your nurse will monitor these side effects, which will wear off, but it may take a few hours. Sometimes, nausea and vomiting can be treated with other medicines.
Follow your surgeon's instructions while you recover and care for your surgical wound.
General anesthesia is generally safe because of modern equipment, medicines, and safety standards. Most people recover completely and do not have any complications.
Cohen NH, Gropper MA, Mahajan A. Perioperative medicine. In: Gropper MA, ed. Miller's Anesthesia. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 3.
Hernandez A, Sherwood ER. Anesthesiology principles, pain management, and conscious sedation. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 21st ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2022:chap 14.
Reviewed By: Mary C. Mancini, MD, PhD, Director, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Christus Highland Medical Center, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.