Myocardial biopsy is the removal of a small piece of heart muscle for examination.
Heart biopsy; Biopsy - heart
Myocardial biopsy is done through a catheter that is threaded into your heart (cardiac catheterization). The procedure will take place in a hospital radiology department, special procedures room, or cardiac diagnostics laboratory.
To have the procedure:
You will be told not to eat or drink anything for 6 to 8 hours before the test. The procedure takes place in the hospital. Most often, you will be admitted the morning of the procedure, but in some cases, you may need to be admitted the night before.
A provider will explain the procedure and its risks. You must sign a consent form.
You may feel some pressure at the biopsy site. You may have some discomfort due to lying still for a long period of time.
This procedure is routinely done after heart transplantation to watch for signs of rejection.
Your provider may also order this procedure if you have signs of:
A normal result means no abnormal heart muscle tissue was discovered. However, it does not necessarily mean your heart is normal because sometimes the biopsy can miss abnormal tissue.
An abnormal result means abnormal tissue was found. This test may reveal the cause of cardiomyopathy. Abnormal tissue may be due to:
Risks are moderate and include:
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Miller DV. Cardiovascular system. In: Goldblum JR, Lamps LW, McKenney JK, Myers JL, eds. Rosai and Ackerman's Surgical Pathology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 42.
Rogers JG, O'Connor CM. Heart failure: pathophysiology and diagnosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 52.
Reviewed By: Thomas S. Metkus, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.