Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare disorder that is present at birth. A child with this condition will have a port-wine stain birthmark (usually on the face) and may have nervous system problems.
Encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis; SWS
In many people, the cause of Sturge-Weber is due to a mutation of the GNAQ gene. This gene affects small blood vessels called capillaries in some but not all body cells. Problems in the capillaries cause the port-wine stains to form.
Sturge-Weber is not thought to be passed down (inherited) through families.
Symptoms of SWS include:
The health care provider should check all birthmarks, including a port-wine stain.
Glaucoma may be one sign of the condition.
Tests may include:
Treatment is based on the person's signs and symptoms, and may include:
More information and support for people with SWS and their families can be found at:
SWS is usually not life threatening. The condition does need regular lifelong follow-up. The person's quality of life depends on how well their symptoms (such as seizures) can be prevented or treated.
The person will need to visit an eye doctor (ophthalmologist) at least once a year to treat glaucoma. They also will need to see a neurologist to treat seizures and other nervous system symptoms.
These complications can occur:
Seizures, vision problems, paralysis, and changes in alertness or mental state may mean the coverings of the brain are involved. These symptoms should be evaluated right away.
There is no known prevention.
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Sahin M, Ullrich N, Srivastava S, Pinto A. Neurocutaneous syndromes. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 614.
Reviewed By: Anna C. Edens Hurst, MD, MS, Associate Professor in Medical Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.