Subdural effusion

Definition

A subdural effusion is a collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) trapped between the surface of the brain and the outer lining of the brain (the dura matter). If this fluid becomes infected, the condition is called a subdural empyema.

Causes

A subdural effusion is a rare complication of meningitis caused by bacteria. Subdural effusion is more common in infants.

Subdural effusion may also occur after head trauma.

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask about the symptoms.

To detect the subdural effusion, tests that may be done include:

Treatment

Surgery to drain the effusion is often necessary. In rare cases, a permanent drainage device (shunt) is needed to drain fluid. Antibiotics may need to be given through a vein.

Treatment may include:

Outlook (Prognosis)

Full recovery from a subdural effusion is expected. If nervous system problems continue, they are generally due to the meningitis, not the effusion. Long-term antibiotics are usually not needed.

Possible Complications

Complications of surgery may include:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call the provider if:

References

De Vries LS, Volpe JJ. Bacterial and fungal intracranial infections. In: Volpe JJ, Inder TE, Darras BT, et al, eds. Volpe's Neurology of the Newborn. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 35.

Kim KS. Bacterial meningitis beyond the neonatal period. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 31.

Nath A. Meningitis: bacterial, viral, and other. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 384.


Review Date: 8/2/2020
Reviewed By: Amit M. Shelat, DO, FACP, FAAN, Attending Neurologist and Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology, Renaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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