Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Definition

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare disorder in which growths called polyps form in the intestines. A person with PJS has a high risk for developing certain cancers.

Alternative Names

PJS

Causes

It is unknown how many people are affected by PJS. However, the National Institutes of Health estimates that it affects about 1 in 25,000 to 300,000 births.

PJS is caused by a mutation in the gene called STK11 (previously known as LKB1). There are two ways that PJS can occur:

Symptoms

Symptoms of PJS are:

Exams and Tests

The polyps develop mainly in the small intestine, but also in the large intestine (colon). An exam of the colon called a colonoscopy will show colon polyps. The small intestine is evaluated in two ways. One is a barium x-ray (small bowel series). The other is a capsule endoscopy, in which a small camera is swallowed and then takes many pictures as it travels through the small intestine.

Additional exams may show:

Laboratory tests may include:

Treatment

Surgery may be needed to remove polyps that cause long-term problems. Iron supplements help counteract blood loss.

People with this condition should be monitored by a health care provider and checked regularly for cancerous polyp changes.

Support Groups

More information and support for people with PJS and their families can be found at:

Outlook (Prognosis)

There may be a high risk for these polyps becoming cancerous. Some studies link PJS with cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, lung, breast, uterus, and ovaries.

Possible Complications

Complications may include:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Contact your provider for an appointment if you or your child has symptoms of this condition. Severe abdominal pain may be a sign of an emergency condition such as intussusception.

Prevention

Genetic counseling is recommended if you are planning to have children and have a family history of this condition.

References

Garber JJ, Chung DC. Colonic polyps and polyposis syndromes. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 126.

McGarrity TJ, Amos CI, Baker MJ. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al, eds. GeneReviews. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1266. Updated September 2, 2021. Accessed January 25, 2022.

Wendel D, Murray KF. Tumors of the digestive tract. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 372.


Review Date: 11/1/2021
Reviewed By: Anna C. Edens Hurst, MD, MS, Associate Professor in Medical Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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